Door locks to consider for your home

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Door locks are an important facet of a structure, either be it residential or commercial. They supply protection unlike other available gadgets. Mostly undermined, the choices of should be made with accuracy so as to meet your requirements.


  1. Knob Locks
    – the most widely used type of door locks installed on inside doors. Although these are not good to use for outside doors because they are not the most secure ones. But they can still be used if used in combination with deadbolt type locks. They have internal locks and the knobs are on either side of the door, either for locking outside or in
  2. Mortise Locks
    – These are strong locks are broadly used for mercantile doors, entry glass doors, and apartment doors. These are commonly comprised of complicated hardware set up to the door and is put in place by a set screw and uses a cam to activate the hardware
    There are multiple types of mortice cylinder locks, these includes but are not limited to three level mortice locks and five lever mortice locks. The amount of levers in a lock indicate how many points the door will lock onto the frame. The more lever, the higher the security.
  3. Padlocks
    – these are the most straightforward kinds of locks which you can bring around anywhere, which means, differing from other locks they are not permanently connected to a door or any object you use it on. The padlocks can be used on a door, gate, locker or even bags to secure a specific space and stop theft and vandalism of your belongings. The parts are a shoulder shackle, a part in which the padlock shoulders lift the sides of the shackle that prevents thieves from using bolt cutters to cut them.
  4. Deadbolts
    – are undeniably the most popular type of lock, and are mostly use in residences. They are opened by inserting then turning a key or by a knob, sans a spring. These have the quality of having a distinctive locking apparatus that will lessen the dangers of forced entry by making it almost improbable for a robber to come crashing through a door.
  5. Smart Locks
    – These are unique because there is no need for keys to lock and unlock them, alternatively it is equipped with a keypad or a card reader. To open these you will have to have a special card or input a code on the keypad. These type of locks are widely used in offices and hotels, but it has become more common in apartments and residences for security purposes. Smart locks are a new innovation in security that are gaining notoriety among home owners the past few years due to its high tech features.

Cracks seen in concrete columns

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Cracking in a column is a significant problem and will probably become the reason it loses strength, stability, durability and will make your buildings look a little less pretty. That is why, it is tantamount to identify the different types of cracks that are present in columns.

  1. Diagonal Cracks

These types of cracks in RC (Reinforced Concrete) columns develop and goes around the face of the column and everywhere along its height.  The reason why these diagonal cracks are happening because of its lack of load carrying capacity of the columns; lacking in cross section and weak reinforcing steel. These cracks will weaken structural strength and it needs to be dealt with accordingly.

  1. Horizontal Cracks
    Horizontal Cracks are mostly seen to occur in the connection between the column and the beam. And it mainly happens on the face of the column where there is a large tensile stress. Support with the enough amount of moment resistance, lack of reinforcements, or the misalignment of installed reinforcement are more likely to be subjected to horizontal cracking; this is due to the effects of shear force and direct load and uniaxial bending.
  2. Splitting Cracks
    These particular cracks happen in short and parallel cracks but they are not uniform in length. They happen on columns that are made with not enough steel and those that used low quality concrete. When these happen, it is a sign that the column has reached its maximum capacity. Therefore, it means that the Load Carrying capacity of the column was surpassed when the concrete ratio has been reached or the ration of reinforcement is not enough or the combination of the two

Corrosion Cracks
Cracks like these are made parallel along the reinforcements. This type is mainly uniform in their width and gets bigger as the columns goes old. This is mainly possible due to reinforcement corrosion over time and the improper bond between concrete and steel bars. If these are not handled properly, the corrosion of the bars will accelerate.

Basics of CHB Laying

Credits to archiandesigns

Safe practices equal to safe structures, safe practices will prevent natural disasters in destroying your structures. Unsafe practices will lead to unsafe buildings, and at the end will cost a whole lot more than the alternative.

The following is a culmination of knowledge from different sources, NCSP and other books, and also from professions that have worked in the field.

What is CHB Layin?

  • Masonry is the term that is used when laying bricks, blocks and stone then joining them with the combination of cement mixture and reinforcement bars.
  • Here in the Philippines the most common material used in masonry is a Hollow Block


What are the pros and cons of using CHB?


  • Cheap to manufacture
  • Strength
  • Durability
  • Does not burn easily
  • Resistant to wind and rain
  • Easily accessible throughout the country.


  • It is not easy to install
  • Multiple workers needed work with CHB
  • Easily damaged during shipping process


The common used types of CHB in the Philippines are 4 inches, 5 inches, and 6 inches. With prices ranging from 10 – 15 pesos, depending on the location.

If possible have only 1 manufacturer per project so that your CHB sizes will be uniform, sizes may vary depending on which shop you buy.  Always check your materials upon delivery, some CHBs are delivered without the proper time to age. These substandard materials will lead to deterioration of your structure.

What to know about tying rebar.


Courtesy of Phillip Kelly (Youtube)

Learning how to tie rebar is as important as perfecting tying sailor’s knots. Though it requires time to get right. Different kinds of ties depend on the job it will be used on, multitude of tools are available in tying ties. Before we jump in to different types of ties let’s first look into what “Tying a Rebar Means”

A rebar’s common use is adding strength to foundations, walls, columns and beams that need reinforced concrete. The size, schedule and placing of these ties are based upon the specifications of the Engineer. Like sailing knots there are different types of ties and these are used based on the preference of the contractor and a small amount to the requirement of rigidity. Stronger ties are mainly used on vertical reinforcements and if the contractor uses the structure to get to higher storeys.

Tying a rebar is mainly done by hooking tools though it can sometimes be achieved with the use of two pliers. Both tools enables the pulling and twisting of the metal.



  1. Figure 8 Tie – It is mainly used in vertical reinforcements as it is stronger.
  2. Saddle Tie – also called the “u” tie, though more complicated than others, it is more commonly used in some regions. Like the square knot, it does not form a diagonal binding across the rebar.
  3. Snap Tie – This is the most common knot because it only uses a single tie. This is done by wrapping the wire around the joint of rebar before twisting it to cut off the long end of the wire.
  4. Wrap and Snap – it is a different approach to the single tie as the single tie is to horizontal supports this is for vertical supports.  It will be coiled around both rebar and then tied on the other side before being “Snapped” clean.
  5. Wrap and Saddle – Though the same as a saddle tie, this is done by wrapping the wire around the rebar 1 and a half times.

Like in different trades of work, employees have their own preference which ties to use, as long as these follow the standards needed they are approved by the Engineers. Others use ready-to-use ties that are preformed before coming in to the site.

On Site Procedures to test quality of Steel Reinforcement


Courtesy of BN Products

Testing the quality of Steel Reinforcement is vital in ensuring that the required qualifications are ingrained into the structure. These procedures to check the quality of the reinforcement bars sent to the site can be done by the following inspections and tests.


On-Site Steel Inspection

  1. Inspect if the manufacturer’s test certificate is available, this shows the properties issued for the lot
  2. In the same certificate, check the steel grade if it is what is ordered.
  3. Check for deformation and splits. Also check for rust build-up and debris on the bars. There is a limit to the amount of allowed foreign material
  4. Check the grade and diameter of the bar

These following tests are per the Indian Standard Code IS-1786

  1. Check for mass every meter run-
    This part will involve splicing a 1m length of the bar from multiple reinforcement groups. Minimum of four sample bars should be taken to do the test. Take the measurement of the bar side to side and take the average. Take the weight of the bar and record. For the bars, calculate the average ratio of the length to the weight. Compare your results to the table in IS-1786. Check if it is within the standard.
  2. Bend and Re-bend Test-
    The rebar will be bent to 180 degrees in the bend test with accordance to IS-1599 in a Mandrel. Will have to check for cracks on the tension side. If there are no visible damages, the rebar has passed the test. In the re-bend test the bar will be bent at 130 degrees. Keep the sample in boiling water for 30 minutes, then let it cool. Once in optimal temperature, re-bend the bar at 157.5 degrees. Check for cracks and if there is none the rebar has passed the test.

Trends that will influence construction this year

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2021 will be a compelling year in construction as trends around the world will coincide with the effects of the pandemic.

The following are the trends that we think will have a great effect on construction in 2021.


Covid-19 safety measures: Construction work was delayed for a few months last year because of the lockdowns caused by the pandemic. Though work has continued provided that companies follow health and safety protocols as to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Although the implementation of social distancing will lessen the possible amount of manpower per site and delay the target end date of the construction, these are important for the protection of all involved in the project and failure to adhere to these will result to shutdowns and may cause more loss.

More Payment disputes and Bankruptcy: Site works are not the only ones affected by the pandemic, supply chain delays and price hikes on materials and shortage in budgetary funds, to give example, are more than likely will end up to claim and payment arguments. To add more, a lot of small businesses will have to declare bankruptcy right now, and this will make it hard for payments and project completions for many owners and engineers whose work has been disrupted.

Court closures: One more aspect affected by the coronavirus is court closures, with multiple government offices shutting down for weeks and months, since the beginning of the lockdowns. This has dampened the speed of numerous cases and projects and has also created an accumulation that has not been addressed with the utmost importance.  With parties on all teams looking to regain the lost time and money from the pandemic and also their case, some will choose to settle this matter quickly.

Adoption of technology: The construction industry has never been one to be ahead of the pack in adapting technology, but one of the more impactful options companies can change how they run is with Building Information Modeling. Refined execution of BIM gameplan can improve team communication, coordination and brainstorming collaboration during the design and construction phase.

International Projects to look out for in 2021

A new year comes with new goals and milestones, especially for construction. While multiple large projects for the Philippines are on their way, some contractors also have jobs in other countries. Here are some international projects that you should look out for.

Hong Kong International Airport expansion

Contractor: Balfour Beatty

Location: Hong Kong, China

Cost: $1.6 billion

Courtesy of Balfour Beatty

Balfour Beatty reported in August that is combined venture, Gammon, was given a four-year, $1.6 billion contract to enlarge Terminal 2 at Hong Kong International Airport, by the Airport Authority Hong Kong.

Gammon will mainly work on the main Terminal 2 building and construction of interconnecting bridges, mechanical and electrical works and connected roads.

This expansion establishes part of the three-runway system project at the airport, which when finished, will enable arrivals and departures from one terminal and enlarge overall passenger capability. There is no completion date as of the moment.

P180 Office Building

Contractor: Skanska

Location: Warsaw, Poland

Cost: $94 million

Courtesy of

In Warsaw close to metro stations and bus stops, Skanska will be constructing the P180 Office Building. When completed the structure will have 15 floors and offer almost 344,000 square feet of leasable space.

The building will be built in accordance with the WELL certification guidelines, meaning the building will meet a number of criteria connected to health, comfort and welfare at the job, according to the release. Construction began the 3rd quarter of 2020 and will end on the 3rd quarter of 2022

Al-Zour Mega Refinery

Contractor: Fluor

Location: Al-Zour, Kuwait

Cost: $16 billion

Courtesy of Fluor

Fluor will lead the combined venture with Daewoo Engineering and Construction and Hyundai Heavy Industries that is working to give two engineering, procurement, and fabrication packages for the complex Al Zour Refinery project located in Kuwait. When completed, the refinery is anticipated to become one of the biggest in the world and produce 615,000 barrels of oil per day, more than multiplying the nation’s processing capacity by 2.

The JV was given the contract in 2015, and the first 14 of 188 prefabricated modules for the project landed in Kuwait in June 2018. As of September, the JV had completed and given over many facilities to the project owner.

Red Sea International Airport Expansion

Contractor: AECOM

Location: Saudi Arabia

Cost: Not disclosed

Courtesy of

Back in December, the Los Angeles-based AECOM signed with the Red Sea Development Co. to supervise work in the Red Sea International Airport Expansion project, Global Construction Review has reported. U.K. architect Foster + Partners designed the expansion.

Declared in 2017, the Red Sea Development tourism project will include 13,100 square miles on the Red Sea coast and will comprise attractions like coral reefs and dormant volcanoes across an archipelago of 90 islands. TRSDC hopes to award $2.7 B in construction contracts by the end of 2020, Bloomberg has reported.

Work will begin this January and will be completed in 2022, as part of plans to enlarge the airport by 2030, according to the Global Construction Review.

Victoria Cross Tower

Contractor: Lendlease

Location: Sydney, Australia

Cost: $1.2 billion

Courtesy of Lendlease

In July, Lendlease hitched final development approval for a major transit-oriented commercial building in downtown Sydney, Australia. The 42-story tower will have make room for 7,000 office workers inside just about 600,000 square feet of premium office and retail area.

Under the tower, the retail space will interconnect with Sydney Metro network producing the biggest public transport project in Australia. The metro will be incorporated majorly in the tower’s design and development, according to the press.

The project is set to finish in 3 years, that started this year.

How to make your Construction Estimates more accurate?


As technology improve the ways we look at construction, the process of estimating has also taken its strides because of more innovative ways. There is nothing more vital than producing quality, outstanding project that exceeds the expectations of the clients, and these all begin on the estimate


  1. Touch the Clouds
    One fundamental improvement is the cloud-based estimation tool. This enables an estimator to use a 2D or even 3D model forecast the needs in a project this approach also provides more accuracy, it provides the client a better view of the estimation, and allows the team a tool to dispense the job. One more cloud-based approach includes using the take-off in the cloud for estimation. This also removes the hassle of using license-based tools.
  2. Become Automatic
    A real innovative process to estimation is known as the automated approach to takeoff. Estimators are eased off of the strenuous task of manually counting materials when takeoffs are automated. They can effortlessly visualize amounts in 3D to understand scope, complexity and design intent. The tool is integral in the preconstruction phase, as it enables the contractor to start the job seamlessly without the hitches of an ordinary start.
  3. Earlier teamups
    Teamups are an important first step in construction estimating and this process will fail if there is no cultural transparency and collaboration between the parties of contractor, client and estimator. Justin Davis, Executive Vice President of Preconstruction, Estimating, and Business Development at Walker Engineering explains the importance of collaborationduring the estimation process this way: “Customers expect and trust [contractors] to fill in all the gaps, make sure that they’ve got their costs covered, and make sure that when we sit in a room, there’s transparency.”
  4. Use connected data
    And last the birth of data connectivity is an important part in improving accuracy of your construction estimate. When data lives in silos, information may get lost, which greatly improves the likelihood of inaccurate estimating. More vital, centralized data and information makes sure accuracy and facilitates a bump less transition from one phase to the next one.

Construction Innovations that will change the game


Advancement of the construction industry is coming rapidly, 29% of the firms reporting to the Construction Association are using technology to help with worker load.

Being part of the construction industry has never been this exciting. As progress continues, there is no telling what the future holds for our industry. Here are recent progressions that will change the industry forever.


  1. Artificial Intelligence
    Enhanced workflows are important to a well-oiled project and groups in construction. But due to the complication of the process, workflows tend to be detached and physical in nature. The most important aspects of optimized workflow are communication, data, and transparency. AI is making it smoother in flourishing in those areas resulting in better productivity and bigger profits.
  2. Workforce Management
    Commanding workforce and resources are big expenses for construction companies. Functional workforce management can aide companies running without a hitch, improve resource spreading and avoid uncalculated expenses and schedule delays. These innovations include predictive tracking, forecasting and mobile-first interfaces. Workforce Management is important to our current economy, where explosive markets require firms to be as accurate and efficient as ever.
  3. Advance 3D Printing
    3D Printing may not be brand new compared to others in this list, but since its inception the standard of the materials produced by 3D Printing has exponentially improved. It has even emerged as an industry standard. We expect 3D Printing technology to grow much further in the future, as companies look to improve in different facets of their work such as quality control, labour shortages and also in testing new intricate designs.
  4. Immersive Reality
    Every has heard of VR (Virtual Reality) and AR (Augmented Reality). VR submerges us in the digital world while, while AR bring the digital world to us in real time. Immersive reality adds the two together. It brings real advantage to business, specially those that rely on collaborating with other departments to get jobs done. Teams can go into the design from any location, share work with potential clients and leave comments for improvement.
  5. Digital Twin
    A digital twin is a replica of a pbysical object, including its potential assets, systems, data and devices. In construction, digital twins gather data through sensors to learn about its physical aspect and then create the duplicate. Having a physical copy of a structure allows workers to assess, manipulate and optimize the building. Digital twins also improves BIM by being a digital thread, connected to the physical aspect directly.

Top 9 Paying Civil Engineering Careers



1)  Engineering Project Managers
Average Salary: $80,000 – $167,000
Annual Provincial Median Salary  : $122,622
Job Description: The work of an Engineering Project Manager consists of planning, directing, organizing projects, including preparing proposals, checking of financial records, product strategy and makes sure that the project conforms with safety regulations.


2) Senior Civil Engineer
Average Salary: $81,000 – $139,000
Annual Provincial Median Salary : $93,650
Job Description: A Senior Civil Engineer plans, designs, develops and manages projects that construct and/or repair buildings, bridges, highways, roads and other structures.


3) Civil Engineer
Average Salary: $66,000 – $95,000
Annual Provincial Median Salary: $92,246
Job Description: The same as a Senior Civil Engineer but with fewer responsibilities.


4)  Engineering Manager
Average Salary: $80,000 – $167,000
Annual Provincial Median Salary: $122,622
Job Description: An engineering manager plans, directs, organizes, controls and evaluates the activities of the engineering department, project or firm.


5) Engineering Inspectors and Regulatory Officers
Average Salary: $58,000 – $120,000
Annual Provincial Median Salary: $88,325
Job Description: Engineering inspectors and Regulatory officers inspect transportation vehicles, weighing meters, industrial instruments, processes and equipment to ensure they comply with government and industry regulations.


 6) Civil drafting technologists
Average Salary: $46,000 – $71,000
Annual Provincial Median Salary : $50,054
Job Description: Civil drafting technologists and technicians prepare engineering designs and related technical information.


7)  Civil Engineering Technologist
Average Salary: $40,000 – $155,000
Annual Provincial Median Salary: $79,253
Job Description: A civil engineering technologist develops engineering drawings and designs from concepts and sketches which have already been laid out. With the help or programs such as AutoCad. They also prepare construction specifications, estimates for the cost of materials and labor, conduct field surveys and inspections, of all types of construction buildings and structures.


8) Civil Engineering Technician
Average Salary: $44,000 – $155,000
Annual Provincial Median Salary: $79,253
Job Description: A civil engineering technician assists in developing engineering drawings and specifications and performs other technical duties pertaining to civil engineering.


 9) Land Surveyor
Average Salary: $28,000 – $80,000
Annual Provincial Median Salary  : $58,397
Job Description: Land surveyors plan, direct and conduct legal surveys in order to create and/or determine property boundaries, contours and prepare for drawings, plans, records and official documents.



All of these jobs require a Civil Engineering degree or diploma.